• Cereals - Wheat and rye for bread, barley for brewing and oats for animal food and porridge.
• Vegetables - carrots, parsnip, cabbages, peas, beans and onions.
• Fruit - such as apples, cherries and plums
• They were mostly vegetarians. Little to no meat.
• Exotic foods such as potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, pineapples - fruits and vegetables of the New World, were unknown to the Anglo Saxons.
• Barley was used to make weak beer, which was drunk instead of water.
• River water was often polluted.
• Wine was imported from the Mediterranean but only drunk by the very rich.
• Pigs were important for food because they produce large litters, which would quickly mature and be ready for slaughter. They were the only animals reared just for their meat. Every other kind of animal served other purposes and were only killed when they became old or ill. Sheep were reared for their wool and meat. Cows were used for their milk and, when they were old, for hides, meat and glue. All animal fat was valuable for making oils for lamps. The Anglo Saxons ate fish which they caught in the rivers and the seas.
• Most meals would have been some form of stew, soup or pottage cooked in a cauldron over the central hearth of the house.
Iron skillets and griddles were also used to cook food over the fire. They are like large flat frying pans.
• The Anglo-Saxons cooked bread in a clay bread-oven, which was outside their house. Bread was cooked by lighting a fire in the oven, letting it get hot and removing the ashes. The bread could then be placed inside to cook. They would probably cook a batch of bread once a day.

Alexandra Shami
Alexis Pera
Jessica Sandoval

Dining With the Anglo-Saxons

When and Why Were They’re Feasts?
- People went to feasts to enjoy themselves and went for entertainment purposes.
- Feasts were held for important events like the marriage of a two people, a birth of a baby, and holidays.
- They were also used to form alliances.

Rituals of Feasts
- Feasts that lasted for three days were used for great celebrations, but day long feasts were most common.
- The Anglo-Saxons watch jesters, musicians, acrobats while they eat.
- Before the feast began, people would gather and wait for the horn to sound before seating themselves at the table.
- They were also required to wash their hands before they ate their meal.
- Proper etiquette was also required. They had a specific seating order, were taught how to eat and what to do if food fell from the table.
- It was not considered polite to pick it up and eat it, but they had to pick it up, bless it, and lay it aside.
- Women weren’t allowed to sit at the table, they only provide drinks.

Obtaining and Preparing
- The Anglo-Saxons got their food by growing everything they needed.
- When the food was ready for harvesting, they would pick the fruits and vegetables and prepare them for dinner.
- The Anglo-Saxons baked their food in clay or turf ovens and fried their foods in a frying pan or griddle.

Drinks and Beverages
- In the Anglo-Saxon period, barley was used to make weak beer and was flavored with wild hops.
- The Anglo-Saxons drank beer instead of water because the river water was polluted.
- Mead is a sweet alcoholic beverage that was made from honey and was usually flavored with some form of herb.
- Only the wealthy drunk wine.
- Wine was generally imported but fruit wines may have been home-produced.
- They also had “apple-wine” which was most likely a form of apple cider.
- Fruit juices like apple, pear and plum were drunk as well as herbal teas.

- Bread was a staple food in the Anglo-Saxon period.
- In every meal, bread was included.
- To grind the grain, a grindstone called a Hand Quern was used.\
- Kneading was done kneeling or sitting on the floor with one end of the trencher between your knees.
- This ensured an easier process because you could use your body weight to knead the dough.

Fruits and Spices
- Mediterranean fruits, such as lemons and oranges, were not imported, although figs and grapes were imported.
- Apples were mainly used for making cider.
- The cider was sweetened with honey because sugar was only used for medical purposes.
- Many spices like garlic, cinnamon and mace were used for cooking.
- But , references believe that these spices were imported.

- The Anglo-Saxons grew wheat, rye, oats and barley.
- Wheat for bread, barley for brewing and oats for animal fodder and porridge.
- Along with these crops, they grew various weeds of cultivation - some of them poisonous.
- Because of their harvesting methods, it was difficult to separate the cereal from the weed, and many illnesses were most likely caused because of this.
- They harvested carrots, but they didn’t have an orange color and were not large like the ones we have today.
- The cabbages’ leaves were also smaller and tougher.

- When meat was available to eat, the Anglo-Saxons ate deer, cow, pigs, boars, and sheep.
- The animals served many different purposes.
- The meat was eaten, the wool, skin and antlers were used for creating a shelter, and their milk was used for drinking.

- Herring, salmon and eel were eaten.
- Some fish like pike, perch, and roach were eaten that we do not eat today.
- Shellfish, especially oysters and mussels, were also popular in their diets at this time.
- The fish was mainly eaten fresh, but they also preserved fish for times when fish and foods were scarce.

- The most popular type of dessert that was eaten was almond cake.
- Sweet foods also were popular, but they usually did not eat desserts on an everyday basis.
- The Anglo-Saxons may have also eaten gingerbreads and cheesecakes.